Casino Games History Or How People Have Learnt To Count Cards

The fantasy of capoting a casino is as old as the belief "casino" itself. Every gambler needs to win. Every other devises his own "system". Every hundredth efforts to carefully examine the sport. And just the few of millions triumph.

The casinos, absolutely, knows regarding the existence of "counters" and want to oppose them - from altering the rules to ban the game. Occasionally even exceeding the limits of reason and legality. In fact, all of the history of the blackjack is the struggle between the gamblers and the casino which is more adroit.

More than half a century passed since the initial attempts of conquering the casinos in blackjack, based not about the marked cards and intuition. There really has been a peck of salt eaten since then, but the struggle continues to be going on...


Likely the first person in history who employed mathematic evaluation to the game blackjack was Jess Marcum (initially Marcovitch) was created on 30th December 1919.

It occurred in the turn of 1949 and 1950, when Jess, being an outstanding mathematician and physicist-theorist got to Las Vegas. Afterward his mathematic flair prompted him that most maybe not everything depends on intuition in blackjack.

Marcum began assessing blackjack. First, the singularity of his effort is that he performed absolutely all calculations with his pen on the paper, on principle without using any technologies whatever poor they might be at that time. Second he'd found the solution!

Jess manually developed what is currently called fundamental strategy and counting procedures ten years before someone else has done that. He counted that theoretically he had an advantage on the casino of about 3% - under the conditions of that time it was fairly real. Additionally, Markum had been playing blackjack in all known to him casinos- both in the united states and abroad. His name appeared on the pages of the newspapers as an illustration of "blessed guy" who managed to hit the jackpot.

Jess Markum also went down to history as probably the very first man thrown out from the casino as a result of cards. Though at that time casinos failed to understand that such system existed. Jess lived in Vegas for about per year. The casino owners traded the information when they gathered in the general meeting. After that Markum wasn't acknowledged at all Vegas casinos. He went to Reno. Exactly the same storyline- in half per year after astounding "luck" the casino owners began making queries regarding the incredible gambler. Afterward other states and cities. Afterward Cuba, the Bahamas. Nobody knows just how much money he has won during that time. One thing is known for sure- in fact, Jess Markum started the war involving the gamblers and casinos in blackjack, that is still going on and getting more and more strained.

He didn't share his computations with anyone, and totally gave up playing against casino after a broad public publication of blackjack approaches by other writers. Jess Markum expired in 1992, in the age of 72.

The four of Neanderthals. {The next effort of great influence on the blackjack math was made in 1956 by the group of four mathematicians- Roger Baldwin, Wilbert E. Cantey, Herbert Maisel and James McDermott.

{These people had never played in casino before, having spent a terrific number of m/hr, they created basic strategy of playing blackjack based on the most popular at that time rules and printed it together using the calculation approaches in the specialized mathematics journal for statisticians - Journal of the American Statistical Association entitled "The Optimum Strategy In Blackjack".

They made several minor errors in computations which is nothing serious taking into consideration their tremendous contribution. A year after they issued a tiny book Playing Blackjack to Win, which will be now a bibliography rarity.

In fact their publication as well as the article did not spark much furor, and remained virtually without attention no matter their progressive approach.